• Basic Facts
    Map of Mozambique
    Country Name:
    Conventional Long Form:  Republic of Mozambique       Country Flag of Mozambique
    Conventional Short Form:  Mozambique
    Location:  Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
    Population:  19,686,505
    Ethnic Groups:  African 99.66% (Lomwe, Makhuwa, Sena, Tsonga, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
    Languages: Portuguese is the official language spoken by 8.8% of the population. However, 27% of the people speak it as a second language.  Other languages are:  Emakhuwa, Xichangana, Elomwe, Cisena, Echuwabo, and other Mozambican languages.
    Economy:  Mozambique became an independent country in 1975.  At this time, it was one of the world's poorest countries.  A civil war from 1977-1992 made the situation worse.  Reforms have been put in place to improve the economy.  Even though many of these reforms have improved the situation, Mozambique remains dependent upong foreign assistance for much of its annual budget.  The majority of the population is below the poverty line.
    Industries:  aluminum, asbestos, beverages, cement, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), food, glass, petroleum products, textiles, and tobacco
    Agriculture:  beef, cashews, cassava (tapioca), citrus and other tropical fruits, coconuts, corn, cotton, potatoes, poultry, sugarcane, sunflowers, tea
        Mozambique gained its independence in 1975 after almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony.  The countries development was hindered by large-scale emigration of whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a horrendous drought, and civil war.  The civil war ended in 1992 when a UN negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance was signed. Marxism had been abandoned in 1989 and a new constitution provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. The current president is Armando Emilio GUEBUZA.
    Family Life
    In traditional Mozambican culture, the man was the head of the household.  Women tended to the agricultural demands.  However, in 2005 a new law was passed.  Woman are now more equal with their male counterparts.  This changed has disrupted the traditional family roles, but it is an exciting change for women.
    School System
    Formal Education comprises formal and informal education.
    Formal Education includes Pre-school, Primary, Secondary, Technical and Professional, Special, Higher and Adult Education, Teacher Training.
    Pre-school Education takes place in nursery schools and kindergartens for children under six years of age and complements the educational activity of the family, with which it co-operates closely. It is the task of Ministry of Education (MINED), together with the Ministries of Health and Social Welfare, to define the overall aims of pre-school education, support and monitor its implementation, define criterion’s and norms for opening, running and closure of such schools. Attendance to Pre-School Education is optional.
    Primary Education comprising 7 grades is divided into two levels: First Level Primary Education (EP1) from Grade 1 to 5 and Second Level Primary Education (EP2) including 6th and 7th Grade. Although for many years the official age for school was 7, since 1993 it was been age 6.
    Secondary Education including 4 grades is structured in two cycles: First Cycle of Secondary Education (ES1) from Grade 8 to 10 and Second Cycle of Secondary Education (ES2) including Grade 11 and 12, the pre-university level.
    Technical and Professional Education includes elementary, basic and middle-level.
    Higher Education has recently experienced a significant expansion with the contribution of the private sector. In addition to the 3 public institutions of Higher Education there are now 3 private Universities.
    Informal Education comprises literacy, development, cultural and scientific update activities and takes place outside the regular system of education.
    ***Interesting to Note***
    When the Portuguese were in control of Mozambique, the people were not allowed to be educated.  In 1975, when Mozambique gained its independence, 90% of the population was illiterate.  Now education is required for children 6-12.  Today, only 40.1% of the population is literate and only 23.3% of females are literate. 
    Classroom Applications
    • An important realization would be that in this country a civil war ended recently, which had a negative effect on the schools.
    • Please be patient with students as they transition into the school structure.  They may not have experience with many of the items used in our schools.

Last Modified on January 4, 2013